To accommodate the influx of English-speaking Loyalists in Central Canada, the Constitutional Act of 1791 divided the province of Canada into French-speaking Lower Canada (later Quebec) and English-speaking Upper Canada (later Ontario), granting each its own elected legislative assembly.The Canadas were the main front in the War of 1812 between the United States and the United Kingdom. Immigration resumed at a higher level, with over 960,000 arrivals from Britain between 1815–50.In general the settlements appear to have been short-lived, possibly due to the similarity of outputs producible in Scandinavia and northern Canada and the problems of navigating trade routes at that time.
Canada is a developed country and has the fifteenth-highest nominal per capita income globally as well as the tenth-highest ranking in the Human Development Index.
It re-established the French language, Catholic faith, and French civil law there, staving off the growth of an independence movement in contrast to the Thirteen Colonies.
The Proclamation and the Quebec Act in turn angered many residents of the Thirteen Colonies, further fuelling anti-British sentiment in the years prior to the American Revolution.
Many moved to Canada, particularly Atlantic Canada, where their arrival changed the demographic distribution of the existing territories.
New Brunswick was in turn split from Nova Scotia as part of a reorganization of Loyalist settlements in the Maritimes.Canada achieved independence gradually beginning with responsible government in the 1830s and culminating with the patriation of the Constitution in 1982.